computer language

What Types of computer programming language?

There are many types of computer programming language Which are discuss below, To understand this we need to know Computer language: is a system of communication.  A programming language consists of all the syntax ( grammar or usage rule) and semantics (meaning) that permits people to communicate with the computer. The computer must have instruction to input /output text etc. They should have instruction  to calculate do logical operation like comparison ,sorting and retrieval of information etc.

Types of Computer programming language are broadly classified as:

  • Low level language
  1. Machine level
  2. Assembly level
  • High level language
  • Fourth generation language(4GL)

Low level computer programming language

Low level language is a machine  oriented and machine dependent  where each instruction correspond  to a machine instruction. It provide little or no abstraction from a computer’s instruction set architecture. To write the program in low level language one should know about the detailed internal architecture of computer and its instruction set. Low level language are simple, but are considered difficult to use, due to difficulty in remembering the numerous of Technical detail.

Machine level language

Machine language is 100% machine oriented and first generation language. In this sequence of instructions is written in the form of a binary number consisting of 1s and 0s which computer responds directly. The instruction prepared in machine level language comprise of two parts. The first part makes the operation code  or OP code or command which specifies the function required to be carried out by the processor. T he second part of the instruction  specifies the operand on which the operation is required to be performed. operand can be data of the location of the data.

Translation Free
High speed
Machine Efficiency
Machine dependent
Error prone
Difficult to modify and troubleshoot
Required hardware knowledge
User’s efficiency
The advantage Disadvantages of machine level language
Assembly language

The machine language codes are difficult to learn and remember, program code became lengthy and  almost impossible to write and debug the errors,  a new language was developed and used in notation for writing a program is called assembly language.

Assembly language uses mnemonics in place of machine code to represent operation codes. the use of these mnemonics helped a lot in reducing the problem of remembering all the machine codes related to the various operations. This made of programming easy and efficient. Note every language has own translators is known as assembler.

Easier to memorize and use
Easy to write input data
Easy print out
Better detect the errors
Good library facility
Machine dependent
not portable
time consuming
Knowledge of hardware required
need of translator and assemblers
Advantage and disadvantage of assembly language :

High level computer programming language

High level language(HLL)  is a human Oriented language. HLL is a machine Independent and requires the support of translator (compiler/interpreter) and is self  documenting. High level language is the general English words. Are machine Independent and procedural oriented. these language are easy to understand and write a program.

Advantage and disadvantage of high level language
Advantage Disadvantage
Human readability.
Machine independent.
Easy debugging.
Easier to maintain.
Low development cost.
Easy documentation.
poor control on hardware.
less efficient.
Advantage and disadvantage of high level language
Example of high level programming language
High level languageIntroduction of language
BASICBeginners all purpose symbolic instruction code
COBOLCommon business oriented language designed especially for a business data processing.
FORTRANFormula translation this language is more suited for science, engineering and mathematical calculations.
PASCALThis language Is named after Blaise Pascal an eminent scientist who developed mechanical calculator
CThis is is a a more efficient general-purpose language developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972.
C++This language is the extension of C language this language is object oriented.
Javageneral purpose and object on long is a program that in a higher level language.
Example of high level programming language

Problem oriented language(4GL)

The language which is application specific and used to solve a specific problem is called problem oriented language. it allow the user to specify what the output should be, without describing all the detail of how data should be manipulate to produce the result. these Are result oriented and include database query languages. They use English like Syntax and easy to use and operate even for general user example MYSQL, SQL, PROLOGS.

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