# Introduction for statistics With its important, types, Function

In this tutorial we will learn about the introduction to statistics, function of statistics, division/part of statistics and Why Statistics is important in the field of CSIT?/Application of Statistics in the field of CSIT:

Introduction to statistics and its uses

• Introduction to statistics :But on the passage of time, its field of application increased day by day. , it is used in most of all spheres of human activities. It is commonly used in mathematics, economics, business, management, sociology, health science, food science, industrial science, engineering, agriculture, computer, and information technology, etc.
• It has an important role in planning, administration, supervision, determining the relationship between variables and their cause and effect relationship, finding averages, dispersion values, testing the normality, estimating unknown values, forecasting, decision making, checking/inspecting the quality of the product, etc.
• Therefore, Statistics affects each and every steps of human being and plays a vital role in our daily life activities.

intro into statistics

• The history of statistics is as old as human civilization.
• The term ‘statistics’ has been derived from the
• ➢Latin word – status
• ➢Italian word – statista
• ➢German word – statistik
• each of which means the political state.
• The word ‘statistics’ originally refers to the collection of facts regarding the state of the people who composed the state.
• At initial stage, it was mainly concerned for collecting and maintaining the information about people of the state, military forces, material strength, no. of weapons and area under cultivation to formulate their military and fiscal policies.

#### Definitions of statistics

• According to Croxton and Cowden,statistics may be defined as the science of collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data”. (singular but comprehensive definition)
• According to Prof. Horace Secrist, “by statistics, we mean the aggregates of facts affected to a markedextent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to reasonable standard of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other”. (Plural definition)

#### Functions and limitation of Statistics

The major functions of Statistics are;

• To collect, present, analyze and interpret the data
• To help in classification of data.
• To simplify complex problems.
• To present the facts in definite form.
• To facilitate comparison.
• To determine the relationship between variables or phenomena.
• To help in estimation or prediction.
• To formulate and test the hypothesis.
• To find the probability of events.
• To help in making plans, policies and decisions etc.

Limitations of Statistics are as follows:

• Statistics does not deal with individuals.
• Statistics does not deal qualitative characteristics directly.
• Statistics data do not reveal the story.
• Statistical laws are not exact.
• Statistical data are liable to be misused easily.

#### Types/Division/Parts of Statistics

1. Mathematical Statistics.
2. Applied Statistics.
Mathematical Statistics:
i. Descriptive Statistics.
It includes;
a. collection of data.
b. presentation of data.
c. summarization of data.
ii. Inferential Statistics:
➢It includes the statistical techniques used to draw inference/conclusion about the population parameters from the sample observation.
Applied Statistics:
 It consists the application of statistics in solving the practical problems.

#### Why Statistics is important in the field of CSIT?/Application of Statistics in the field of CSIT:

• Statistics is not only the device for collecting the information but as a means of developing proper techniques for their handling, analyzing and drawing reliable and valid conclusions from them. Hence, statistics is used in most of all the fields of human activities and IT is also not free from the use of statistics.
• With the rapid development of technology, the computer has become one of the most useful tools for different activities. The computers can perform many statistical calculations such as the calculation of measures of central tendency, dispersion, skewness, kurtosis, correlation and regression, different tests of hypothesis and confidence intervals. Similarly, using the computer, complex statistical analysis like
• multivariate analysis, factor analysis, principal component analysis, meta analysis etc. are also can be done easily.
• But computer alone is not sufficient to resolve all the problems related to IT-related data. There are so many problems related to computer science and information technology which can be addressed by using the concepts of statistics and the various measures of statistics.
• For example, if we have to identify which department is increasing their disk-space usage unusually fast, which motherboard has the lowest rate of failure, which antivirus software is more popular etc. then we must have to take help of statistics.
• Similarly, by using the different measures of statistics we can compare, classify, present, predict, analyze and interpret the IT-related data, we can find the relationship between IT-related variables, we can select the appropriate software package to analyze the IT related data etc. Therefore, Statistics play important role in the field of CSIT.