After reading this lesson you’ll able to learn complete basic concept of web, protocols on internet and uses of internet so continue reading…
Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks which connects billions of computers Οr Users world wide.
The internet can also be defined as a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business and governmental networks that are connected through wired, wireless or optical network technologies.
What are the Use of internet?
The internet are used for many purpose. Read some uses of internet or application of internet which improve your concept about internet.
- E-mail: is one of the internet service which helps the user to send and receive electronic messages and they are essential communication tool in business.
- Social network: A social network service is a service to unite a group of people who share their interest and other activities. The social networking service provides facilities to connect and chat online, share views, share pictures and videos, share their status etc. Some of the popular social networking Services are facebook, Twitter, Orcut etc.
- Discussion forum: With discussion forums, User can discuss on different topic To participate on discussion forums, we need to register first and people on discussion forum can post questions and others can send their responses. People can grade the responses for motivation. They are widely used in academic and software development fields.
- Instant Messengers: It provides a way of communicating with the people who are logged on to the system at the same time. These messengers are the services that provide online messaging service with instant messaging facilities. Some of the popular instant messaging services are messenger, Google talk, Yahoo messenger etc.
- Online job and outsourcing: Through the use of internet , can do work for some companies online. Through online job, people can do work and get paid for that with use of internet, software development companies Outsource their Job to other parts of the world.
- E-shopping (Electronic shopping): The shopping companies provides websites through which electronic shopping can be done by the customers. E-shopping is a type of E-commerce which provides the customers with the facility for selecting, booking and buying products and services online.
- Entertainment: The internet provides interactive entertainment to the users through multimedia contents like video, audio, movies animations as well games online.
- Electronic Banking : Through internet, people can view their account information and account statement as well as perform their transactions like depositing or withdrawing certain amount from banks. Banks can allow to pay bills for telephone, electricity etc. to a companies that they recognize. These facilities saves time and effort of the users.
Protocol concept on internet
For communication between two different computers across the network with different hardware and software, direct data transfer is not acceptable. For the data transfer among different types of computers there should be an agreed up-to standard which could be interpreted by all the computers. A set of rules which is used by computer to communicate. with each other across the network is called protocols. Actually protocol can be defined as the rules govern the syntax, semantics and synchronization communication. Protocols specify the format of message and the rules for exchanging the messages. Protocols can be implement by both Hardware and software.
Internet protocol suite
It is a set of communication protocol that are used in internet. Basically internet protocols suite is also called as TCP/IP protocol suite. TCP/IP protocols suite defines following layers:
The types of protocols are discuss below which improve your internet concept:
IP (Internet Protocol )
IP is a protocol that is defined Internet layer of IP layer to TCP/IP protocol suite. For IP layer to work, each computer is provided a unique address called IP address which is used to identify the computer in the network. The main task of IP is to send the packets with its best efforts to the destination. when a packet is to be sent, then the IP adds destination and source address to the packet. Actually to send the data to the destination the transport layer requests the internet layer to send the data and the internet layer sends the data by encapsulating the data according to the packet format of IP with source of & destination IP address.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
is one of the main protocols of Internet protocol suite. TCP operates in the transport layer and the actual function TCP is the actual reliable and ordered delivery stream of bytes of data from one computer to another. The other function of TCP is flow control, congestion control, segment sizing etc. It guarantees the delivery of data to destination without duplication or loss of data.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
It is one of the two protocols defined at transport layer of internet protocol suite. Using this protocol computers can send messages referred as datagram and provides unreliable delivery of data to the destination without ordering an with duplication or loss of data.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
HTTP is one the popular application layer protocols which specifies the rules for interlinked documents called hypertext documents which contains Images, videos and multimedia contents. The client, mostly web browsers, sends a request to the server using the HTTP and the server sends the requested page to the user.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol ):
It is an application layer protocol to exchange files between on computers TCP/IP network. FTP Uses TCP of transport layer to transfer the file. It is reliable & secure file transfer protocol for transferring files. And FTP client can request exchange a files.
Telnet Terminal Network
This is application layer protocol that provides interactive text-oriented interface to access the remote computer through virtual terminal connection. Telnet can also be used to provide a bi-directional interactive communication facility and for this a client application normally called telnet is used to connect the user’s computer.
basic web concept on internet
Here the some basic concept of web on internet:
World wide web (www)
The www is collection interlinked documents in the internet. Through the use of interlinked hypertext documents the user of can easily and immediately access the linked documents. Since the system of hypertext document allow the user to access millions of document world wide or So it is also called world wide web or www.
internet web browsers concept
are special programs written to interpret the content of web pages. The web browsers are developed by various companies and for various platforms. So without standard markup language, different web browsers may interpret the language in different way. To address these types of problems consortium called W3C (www.consortium is formed)
Web Browser It is a special software that interprets the markup language such as HTML presents in the web pages and the information in a suitable form to the user. A web browser acquires web pages from the web server, presents the contents of the web page in a suitable and also transfer the information resource the form and web. By making use of URL link on a web page, the web browser allows the users to navigate through the web. The web browser information on can also be used to save the web to the disk.
internet Web server concept
It is a special server than runs on a specific dedicated computer and delivers contents such as web pages using HTTP protocol to the requesting clients such as web browsers. After getting the request from the clients; the web server delivers the contents in hypertext format that can be interpreted by the web browsers. Through the use of scripting languages, Some of the processing can be done in the server side such as accessing a database, comparing the input data sent from web browsers and a lot operations to process data on the request – response basis.
Website is collection of related web pages. The webpage that appears first while accessing a website is the home page of the website. The website is accessed and viewed by typing URL or IP address of the computer containing the website. Website can contain text information, audio, video or other multimedia contents that are embedded in web pages or accessed through the links in the webpages. The collection of publicly accessible websites is called www.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
URL is a string of characters that specifies a way refer to a resource and mechanism to get it. It can be referred as a unique address for a file that is accessible on the internet. It is often called as a web address and a web address contains 3 elements:
- as the type of protocol used (http for webpages, ftp for file)
- the domain or IP address of the server where the files resides.
- the pathname to the file to be accessed (optional) Example: https://www.google.com/…. (https are Protocol, www.google.com is domain name, and on the place of …. is Pathname or filename)
DNS (Domain Name System)
This is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, resource or any Service on the internet. DNS is a database system that Serves as phonebook for the internet by translating the friendly domain name into IP addresses. It allows to Connect to the network by using its user friendly domain name A domain name consists rather than its IP address. DNS allows to connect to the network by using its user friendly domain name rather than its IP address. A domain name consists of top level domain which is country specified such as .np .in .us etc.
for example: www.csitcollege.com above domain name .com it top level domain and csitcollege is Second level domain
ISP (Internet Service Provider) concept
An ISP is an organization that provides access to the internet. ISP’s can be either non profit or privately owned (for profit). Mostly ISP’s directly connect to the clients through the Use of copper wire’s telephone lines the or wireless connection. It is a form of company which supports one or more forms of internet access, ranging from traditional modem dial up connection ADSL ( Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) & most recently used wireless services. Some of the ISPS of Nepal are word link communications pvt.ltd, Nepal Doorsanchor company ltd, united Netman Technologies pvt.Ltd, Telecom Ltd, Broadlink etc.
Search engines is the special website designed to search for information on the www. It collects and organizes the contents from all over the internet. A lot of information is a available on the internet in different websites and there are billions of websites on the internet. If we want to get information about certain topic, then for this the search engines are used which will search the given information and will provide list of links of websites along with brief descriptions about each websites.
web search engines work by storing the information about many web pages which are retrieved by following every link on the site. There are different types of search engine on the internet such as www.yahoo.com, bing.com, www google.com, infoseek.com, www.altavista.com etc.
Basic E-mail (Electronic mail) concept on internet
E-mail is most popular Service or facility of internet which allows users to send and receive electronic messages in digital form anywhere in the world. It is the latest tool and is fast, reliable and efficient method of communication. In E-mail, not only the text files can be documents, but also the pictures, audio, video sent through E-mail by attaching the file. It also provides facility of sending messages to many people at a time, which is also called broadcasting.
The advantage of E-mail are:
- Group discussions and group work.
- Publishing online Newsletters.
- Communication and information exchange.
- staying in touch socially and professionally.
- Transmitting documents by attachments.
- Easy way of advertisement.
- Group mail to multiple users.
The Disadvantages of E-mail are:
- Spams and computer virus.
- Privacy and security problems.
- Attachment size & mailbox limitation
- Email bombing.
- Inconsistency of duplication.
- Hacking, threating, abusing people etc.
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